“Time will be the fire we burn in.” And even though we may not be able to quench its unrelenting flame, scientists have made an effort to divert its path by isolating small enclosures where time slows to your crawl. Within these chambers the frenetic Brownian dance turns into a chaperoned waltz, as temperatures approach absolute zero. The interior environment of Air separation equipment is a world apart, a reminder of your ultimate heat-death that has to befall our universe from the eons into the future.
For those who seek to discover truths concerning the workings of your cell, holding back the floodgates of your energy is an issue of significant proportions. Scientists are generally thinking about very specific cell properties that take place at critical junctions inside the life of a cell. Holding these processes under control while their properties can be exploited is akin to the situation of catching one’s shadow.
Cryogenic freezing of cells has been utilized as you answer to the issue in the slow burn. By reduction of temperatures of samples to the glass transition phase of -133°C, the temperature at which all metabolic activity comes to a halt, scientists are able to seclude moments over time, returning again and again to analyze that instant of all time.
Unsurprisingly, cryogenics has grown to be a significant industry that makes customized products for pretty much every conceivable purpose. From small tabletop apparatus to industrial-scale liquifiers, the marketplace in cryogenics provides mechanical freezers, canisters, and dewars in just about every size, shape, and configuration imaginable. By using these numerous types of products to pick from expertise in which of them are best may elude the standard consumer. In order to provide an overview of the most important producers of cryogenic laboratory supplies several manufacturers is going to be profiled in this post.
Ultra-low lab freezers are among those things that most people never take into consideration until they quit working. Made to run for years without interruption in service, lab freezers are definitely the quiet sentinels in the laboratory, keeping a vigilant watch over the researcher’s most prized possessions. Most scientists stay away from thinking about what might happen if their freezer failed, or they attempt to erase the memory through the day in the event it did. A career’s worth of samples could be lost in just one afternoon– several years of careful collecting and cataloging reduced to mere puddles on the ground. Despite the fact that this kind of scenario looms ominously from the periphery of every researcher’s consciousness, not every person is prepared for the entire day whenever it actually occurs. Manufacturers of ultra-low lab freezers have got great pains to make sure that power failures and refrigerant leaks will never compromise one’s samples. They build machines that usually are meant to be forgotten.
MMR Technologies is definitely the only company which utilizes the Kleemenko cooling cycle in its refrigerators. Even though the natural gas industry provides this procedure for years, MMR Technologies was the initial company to patent the technology and adapt it for very small, lightweight, and portable freezing systems.
The way the Kleemenko cycle works is a mixture of compressed gas and liquid is passed down a countercurrent exchanger and is capable to expand by way of a capillary or throttling valve. Cooling occurs upon expansion, as well as the cool gas passes backup the heat exchanger, precooling the incoming high-pressure gas. One or more liquid-vapor separators could be incorporated inside the cycle in order that the increase of the liquid enables you to precool the vapor (W.A. Little., Presented at ICEC17, Bournemouth, U.K.,July 14-17 1998)
The BIO 120 is actually a zero-maintenance, low-power-consumption Kleemenko refrigerator that is for storing frozen tissue, cell cultures, organs, and the entire body parts. The system allows the scientist to warm and cool samples uniformly without shocking them, and since they have an internal power source it can be used for your transportation of samples from storage facility to look into laboratory. Robert Paugh, product manager for MMR Technologies, was insistent on the need for controlled temperature ramping.
“Being a user you want to understand the minimum temperature and exactly how it gets there,” said Paugh. MMR Technologies’ enhanced control systems and printed thermal record of cooling ensures that uniform temperatures have already been maintained through the cooling process.
Kelvinator Scientific, and that is a subsidiary of Frigidaire, provides freezer units for laboratories and pharmacies that are equipped for biological samples at temperatures to -86°C. At temperatures this low animal and plant viruses, bacteria, spores, and bacteriophages could be preserved for extended periods. Locking lids are provided as a way to protect samples from accidental being exposed to ambient temperatures. Adjustable shelving, pullout drawers, and drawer partition inserts are of help for separating different experiments.
NuAire, Inc. credits a lot of its ultralow freezing capabilities to the heavy-gauge galvanized steel cabinets. The temperature-conducting quality of the material reduces stress on compressors allowing the units to run longer and colder than would certainly be possible. Maintaining temperatures at -152°C the NuAire ultralow freezer can perform holding samples beneath the crystallization point.
Consistent with the Clean Air Act of 1990 for systems using HCFC/HFC refrigerants, NuAire also uses a special mixture of azeotropic gases that are non-flammable and enable on-site recycling. Furthermore, a built-in timer cycles the reduced stage compressor every one day, turning them back so the capillary tubing will probably be cleared of ice formation.
So-Low Environmental Equipment Co. includes a long tradition of making ultralow freezers for laboratory applications. The truth is, with forty years of experience under its belt, So-Low is one of the oldest manufacturers of ultralow temperature freezers in the market. When the Montreal Protocol started the phase out of CFC refrigerants in 1987, So-Low was among the first to work with Dupont Suva 95, the newest CFC-free refrigerant that runs cooler together with less pressure than CFCs. In addition to its investigation of green refrigerants, So-Low has also developed a revolutionary compressor that is certainly designed mainly for its ultralow freezers.
Forma Scientific offers both mechanical and liquid nitrogen storage systems for preserving samples at ultralow temperatures. The mechanical freezers preserve specimens as a result of -86°C, while Forma’s liquid nitrogen freezers store samples at -133°C. Unlike its competitors’ liquid nitrogen freezers, however, Forma provides square cross-section units rather than the normal cylindrical containers. Every one of these cabinets is constructed of cold-rolled steel. Forma’s counterbalanced lids provide easy access, an optional thermal data printer continuously documents all operational functions, as well as a storage system adjusts to fit a selection of tube sizes. Forma offers a patented double door unit that separates long lasting from everyday storage.
Revco is among the largest manufacturers of laboratory freezers with over 50 years of experience in the market. Revco’s Elite, Value, and Ultima mechanical freezers sustain temperatures from -10°C to as little as -120°C without CFC refrigerants and can be found in chest, upright, and tabletop models. Its sophisticated Ultima freezers offer automatic electronic systems that constantly adjust conditions towards the internal and external environment, correcting for subtle fluctuations in ambient temperature, excessive loading with warm samples, and dirty filters. In addition, it features a scrubbing cycle that removes vaporized lubricating oil through the evaporating coils.
Sanyo continues to be manufacturing laboratory and medical freezers for over twenty years, beginning with its manufacturing of the 1st -40°C chest freezer in 1974. Sanyo duplicated this achievement with the creation of the initial -152°C ultralow temperature freezer in 1991 and additional demonstrated its position by becoming the first manufacturer to offer a complete variety of CFC-free medical freezers. Today, Sanyo offers one of several largest selections of ultralow temperature lab freezers now available. Sanyo’s upright and chest freezers are designed for utilization in preserving cells, bacteria, spores, pollen, sperm, protozoa, and blood components for academic and industrial research.
The word dewar, originally used on double walled glass vacuum flasks, is already used on a wide range of insulated vessels made for maintenance of samples in liquid nitrogen. Based on their size, dewars usually rest on to the floor or take a seat on tabletops where samples can be accessed. Due to quality of insulation materials, some dewars have maintained critical temperatures so long as 1 year without having to be regenerated with liquid nitrogen. The normal thermal wall includes an aluminum or steel sandwich filled with polyurethane. The size and configuration of dewars vary to this kind of extent that a great many companies build custom dewars to buy. Some of these companies as well as their items are reviewed within the following section.
From Alaskan salmon eggs to embryos from Idaho’s chicken farms, MVE made laboratory freezers for a wide variety of applications. Naturally, animal breeders are just a small number of its customers. Blood and cell storage in addition to organ shipment are an equally large component of MVE’s business with medical and pharmaceutical applications representing the easiest-growing part of the market for the company’s products.
MVE was the 1st company to build up biological freezers effective at maintaining a -190°C environment for any full year without refilling with nitrogen. Since this time MVE has released the complete type of XLC series liquid and vapor-phase freezers. The XLC liquid nitrogen freezers are capable of handling as many as 36,000 vials at temperatures only -195.8°C. The vapor-phase freezers are designed for cells that may be stored at -125°C but can become damaged or discolored at critical temperatures achieved by liquid nitrogen freezers. The vapor-phase freezers may also be useful for storing hazardous materials that might cross-communicate inside a liquid medium, such as contaminated-blood bags which are prone to break open.
Quantum Technology is really a worldwide manufacturer and supplier of laboratory freezers with offices in america and Germany. Its product line includes everything from compressors and temperature sensors to gas wells and vacuum shrouds.
Based on Sean Wolf, product manager for Quantum Technology, a good way his company has been able to remain competitive is actually by offering on-site service and warranty repair. Another major selling reason for Quantum’s refrigeration systems is simply because they might be custom-built.
Certainly one of Quantum Technology’s most popular products is actually a helium recovery system. Although liquid helium is only $4 or $5 per liter, in many countries outside Canada And America and Europe, the cost of purchasing helium is a problem of concern. That is among the explanations why Quantum Technology makes a competent two-stage and three-stage closed-cycle refrigerator wherein the helium is retained within the system. The helium out of this refrigerator is reliquified to use repeatedly.
Lab-Line Instruments, designer and manufacturer of dewars for scientific research and recently acquired subsidiary of Barnstead Thermolyne, provides a Thermo-Flask line of products which include wide-mouth flasks, insulated Thermo-Cups, steel Thermo-Flasks, and enameled steel Thermo-Flasks. Twenty-six different types can be purchased with capacities from 200 cc to 10 liters, and each one of these models is available using a 24-month warranty. Other special features of the Thermo-Flask brand of products include vented lids to avoid pressure build-up, fold-down handles, and borosilicate inner vessels evacuated to deliver coolant retention for samples held in liquid nitrogen or solid CO2.
Barnstead Thermolyne manufactures the Bio-Cane and Locator Plus cryogenic storage systems, which are distributed by a number of companies throughout america. The Bio-Cane systems can be found in five sizes and provide features for example super vacuum insulation, ampule cans, a polycarbonate lid, and color-coded canisters for inventory identification. The Locator Plus storage systems can be bought in four sizes and get capacities as much as 6,000 vials. Along with some of the standard features within the Bio-Cane, the Locator provides hanging racks by using a gridded box design, audible and visual alarms that warn of low-level conditions, plus an ultrasonic liquid level monitor that eliminates contact with liquid nitrogen and consequently reduces evaporation.
Pope Scientific makes many different traditional dewar flasks in “cylindrical,” “low form shallow,” and “spherical” styles. All Pope dewars are produced from borosilicate glass included in a protective mesh, and each and every wide-mouth model carries a vented polyethylene stopper to lower evaporation. Wide-mouth dewars can also be jacketed in aluminum casing for added safety.
Pope Scientific’s narrow-mouth or “constricted-neck” dewars are suitable for temporary storage or transfer applications with holding times more than two weeks. All of these units come built with a minimal-evaporation stopper, a fully shielded evacuation tip, a weighted base, and protective mesh. Options for these instruments include fiberglass caddies for carrying or decanting.
Taylor-Wharton International helps to make the K Series, XT (Extended Time), HC (High Capacity), and RS (Rack System) dewars that enable the researcher to hold large quantities of semen, embryos, and biological samples at liquid-nitrogen temperatures. All these units is complemented by its very own inventory control system, which is designed to maximize the quantity of vials that could be safely arranged right into a canister-type storage device. By either immersing samples in liquid nitrogen or suspending them in nitrogen vapor, vials might be maintained at temperatures of -196° C.
Cryogenic Tubes are the most often used and least considered implements within the researcher’s tool box. Bags of tubes are stuffed into corners and forgotten until they mysteriously run out a day. Then it is time to travel shopping. Making decisions about buying cryogenic tubes is normally guided by three primary issues, the very first in which concerns the matter of whether or not they are externally or internally threaded. Advocates of externally threaded vials suggest that material is trapped within the threads of internally threaded vials, while proponents of your internally threaded sort debate that externally threaded vials are more easily contaminated by accidental contact. Although studies have been conducted in order to confirm or refute these claims, these have not been conclusive, as well as the debate continues on.
One more consideration which comes into mind when selecting cryogenic tubes is definitely the material from where they can be constructed. While plastic vials are, perhaps, stronger than glass, they take longer to warm which may negatively modify the viability of some cells. Some plastic tubes will also be contaminated with releasing fluids through the molding process. However, releasing fluids can be taken off together with the good care, and some businesses like Axygen are looking at new polished molds which do not require the usage of releasing fluids. Glass, alternatively, warms rapidly but is likewise subjected to fracture as a result of microchannels which may form from the glass, causing leakage of sample contents, or perhaps violent explosions. Plastic vials may also be susceptible to nitrogen penetration but the potential for explosion is not really as great.
Gasketing has been a challenge of some contention within this industry. Many cryovials are equipped with a washer that keeps the internal pressure of the vial from expelling the tube’s contents after it is warmed to ambient conditions. The rapid expansion of gas inside the tube is sufficient force cells and fluid with the lids of countless non-gasketed cryotubes. Silicon is generally preferred as the best material for insulating caps against leakage. Although rubber can also be used, it has a tendency to get rid of its elasticity when dropped to freezing temperatures, a problem that had been demonstrated as soon as the “O” rings about the space shuttle Challenger failed.
Simport Plastics, headquartered in Quebec, supplies a large choice of cryotubes and microcentrifuge tubes which can be used at temperatures as little as -190°C. Created for handling biological samples under freezing conditions for prolonged periods, its Cryovials™ come equipped with attached leak proof caps that contain a dual lip along with a silicon washer. A special ridge on each cap makes handling easier, contributing to one-hand aseptic technique, and color-coded cap inserts along with white marking areas make each vial easily identifiable.
Evergreen Scientific manufactures the CryoSure® model of vials for storing cell cultures, blood/serum specimens, sperm, as well as other biological fluids at vapor-phase liquid nitrogen temperatures (-195°C). CryoSure vials are available in 1. ml, 1.5 ml, and three.5 ml sizes and are available in round-bottom and freestanding configurations.
Evergreen also provides a wide range of microcentrifuge tubes that range in capacities from 250 µ l to 2. ml. Some examples are polypropylene tubes, that may be combined with solvents, alcohols, chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons, and ketones. These tubes are sterilized using gamma radiation and they are pressure tested in the vacuum chamber to be sure the longevity of its double-sealing screw caps.
Evergreen has recently developed a new microcentrifuge tube, in cooperation with Washington University Lipid Research Center, for use in lipid fractionation studies. It is actually a 1.5 ml polystyrene tube with an 11 mm high-density polyethylene cap. One of several outstanding attributes of this tube is it is totally transparent.
Nalgene® and Nunc™ cryogenic vials include a selection of externally and internally threaded vials from 1. to 5. ml capacities that happen to be silicone gasketed and guaranteed to be used inside a centrifuge. The Nalgene 5000 series vials feature graduations and are certified to become sterile, noncytotoxic and nonpyrogenic, whilst the System 100 vials are guaranteed to be leakproof in a microcentrifuge around 8,000 g and during shipment and transport. However, the company warns that cryotubes improperly sealed in liquid phase can lead to an explosion or biohazard release. Nalgene and Nunc have provided CryoFlex Tubing to avert this contingency.
Wheaton Science Products makes tubes and flasks for nearly every eventuality. From serum bottles to mobile phase reservoirs, it has developed a substantial catalog of products for handling liquid samples. Wheaton’s Cryules® can be bought in both plastic and glass. The glass Cryule is constructed from Wheaton-33° low extractable glass that may be hermetically sealed. These are typically ideal to the preservation of biological materials with liquid nitrogen at low temperatures. Wheaton’s plastic Cryules are autoclavable and, like all of the glass Cryules, can withstand temperatures between -196°C and 121°C. Wheaton Vacules are vials which can be constructed for lyophilization and freeze-drying. Their heavy-wall construction causes them to be exceptionally durable, and they can be flame sealed or stored with a wide range of stoppers and caps.
Corning Incorporated Science Products Division makes a number of polypropylene vials that are designed for use at temperatures to -196°C. These come built with many different features including color-coded caps, silicon and rubber washers for secure sealing of contents, as well as simple-to-read graduations for partial volumes. Self-standing and locking features can be found with selected styles. Each one of Corning’s vials are supplied sterile and certified as nonpyrogenic.
Axygen Scientific Inc. makes microcentrifuge and screw-cap tubes for storing samples at subfreezing temperatures that are made with 99.9 percent pure polypropylene with no mineral fillers or heavy metals. Foreign substances are added limited to the request from the customer, and Axygen’s colorants contain no metallic ions like iron, chromium, or nickel that happen to be typical constituents of dyes. All of the company’s vials was created to snap closed within a locked position for centrifugation, and special piercing ports make your insertion of syringes easier for collecting samples. Axygen’s “O” ring closure system includes a patent-pending alignment system that guarantees that this microtube is aligned inside the centrifuge rotor to be re-spun without disturbing the pelletized sediment.
Sarstedt Inc. comes with an extensive catalog of microcentrifuge tubes which can be appropriate for both freezing at ultralow temperatures and centrifugation that come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and colors. An individual has the option for selecting from a number of externally threaded microtubes with attached or enclosed screw caps that may be colored for identification. All of Sarstedt’s tubes are sterile, along with the polypropylene material that they are constructed allows them to endure subfreezing temperatures as well as temperatures and pressures inside an autoclave. One of the areas that Sarstedt has paid particular focus to in developing its brand of products is the requirement for cryogenic vials that have reaction buffers and enzymes for PCR applications.
Stockwell Scientific manufacturers CRYO-LOK® Cryogenic Vials and screw- cap microcentrifuge tubes for storage and transport at ultralow temperatures. These range in capacity from .5 ml to 3.5 ml and can be purchased in conical and skirted configurations. Stockwell’s microcentrifuge tubes can be put through a centrifugal force of 20,000 g and each one of its O-ring sealed tubes has become sterilized.
Storage inventory systems can be a critical a part of any long term protocol for cryogenic preservation. Once cryogenic vials are stored at subfreezing temperatures they might undergo changes that can make them difficult to keep trace. Labels could become brittle, breaking and separating from vials, and improperly stored tubes could be dropped into liquid nitrogen making retrieval difficult and costly. Probably the most popular strategies for containing samples is definitely the canister and cane. Employing this technique, a number of vials are enclosed in a long aluminum shaft that is submerged within liquid nitrogen. The canes can be easily manipulated for small sample volumes and protect vials from damage that may occur from bumping or agitation. For greater storage capacities, however, the drawer method is usually preferred. Although drawer systems often expose more samples to warming during exchange, the accessibility from the system reduces exposure time and energy to ambient temperatures leading to less evaporation from your freezer, as well as reduces the researcher’s being exposed to potentially harmful cryogens.
Forma Scientific makes rack inventory systems for liquid-phase and vapor-phase storage. These racks are designed to optimize the quantity of storage area afforded by Forma’s liquid nitrogen containers. The conventional inventory configuration is a cardboard or steel construction arranged into arrowhead or square designs. Vertical inventory systems enable the user to arrange approximately 82 racks at maximum density.
TetraLink International concentrates on making storage boxes and rack systems for cryogenic storage. Designed for the widest possible applicability, its freezer storage systems are available in numerous sizes, shapes, and colors to suit nearly every freezer. Clear lids allow contents to become viewed without opening the containers, and they are often adjusted in a few models to allow for tubes of varying heights. Round holes provide spacing with clearance for snap-seal and safe-lock caps. TetraLink’s Racksys storage system uses sliding drawers that contain storage racks for holding as many as 267 microtubes. These drawers might be installed in virtually any upright freezer or refrigerator.
Nalgene and Nunc storage systems comprise some plastic or chipboard containers for microcentrifuge tubes and glass vials. They are keyed in order to avoid misalignment and provide temperature resistance from -196°C to 121°C.
Nalgene® CryoBox Racks provide stainless-steel retainer systems appropriate for all Nalgene and Nunc storage boxes. They provide vertical and horizontal storage for boxes that maintain each box separately for convenient retrieval.
National Labnet provides freezer racks and storage boxes on an increasing assortment of sample containers. As high-throughput experiments require greater reserves of reagents, Cryogenic Movable tank has responded with boxes and racks that are constructed for numerous samples of both well plates and cryovials. They also have introduced boxes with telescoping lids so that you can satisfy requirements for single box containers with vials of differing sizes.
Custom Biogenic Systems is amongst the largest manufacturers of rack systems for cryogenic canisters. Actually, several of its goods are sold as standard accessories with some of the major producers of laboratory freezers. Its pie-shaped racks are built from stainless steel and will include a choice of cardboard, aluminum, or stainless steel boxes with 1/2 inch or 5/8″ cell dividers. These systems are available as individual units or as complete racks for usage in vapor- phase or liquid-phase storage.
Most likely, the cryogenic products one buys today could be the same ones that can be used for a long time. An order made today may go on for a decade. Ultimately, researchers buying CNG Trailer are not just buying products for themselves, they can be buying for their successors. The consumer must look into what might 46dexkpky during the period of years if their samples become degraded or contaminated because of improper storage. Just a little money that was saved in the beginning by scrimping on vials or freezers might not seem like the best trade off when valuable samples are lost. In spite of the safeguards built-in to most of these devices many product managers recommend making regular maintenance on these kinds of products a top priority. Appointing a lasting position that is accountable for the cryogenic safety of your laboratory’s biological collection is probably the best ways to assure the integrity of such samples.